The New York State Mesonet operates a sub-network of 17 enhanced surface energy budget stations with sensors that directly measure both incoming and outgoing shortwave and longwave radiation, ground heat flux, and turbulent fluxes of momentum, sensible and latent heat, and carbon dioxide. All flux measurements are reported every 30 minutes, and the components of radiation are also reported every 5 minutes. Flux station locations were selected based upon their surrounding topography, land use, and fetch characteristics, and include a wind farm, vineyards, orchards, farmland, and urban areas.
The four components of radiation are measured by a Kipp & Zonen CNR4 net radiometer. The unit is heated and ventilated at times to reduce impacts from dew and frost. The CNR4 is installed at approximately 8 m AGL.
Ground Heat Flux Plates
Four ground heat flux plates, manufactured by Hukseflux, are installed at 5 cm depth at each site. Data from the four sensors are averaged to yield a single representative ground heat flux.
Sonic Anemometer and Gas Analyzer
A closed-path eddy-covariance system (CPEC200, Campbell Scientific, Inc) includes a 3D ultrasonic anemometer (CSAT3A) and closed-path CO2/H2O gas analyzer (EC155). These sensors are installed at approximately 8 m AGL. On-site calibrations are performed automatically using canisters of known gas carbon dioxide concentrations.